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Anti-lock braking system. A system to prevent wheels locking under severe braking conditions. This helps stop the vehicle skidding out of control.

Approach angle.
This is the angle between the foot of the front wheel and the underside of the bumper. This gives the maximum angle of slope that can be driven up.

This measures the drop attainable between a wheel on one side of the vehicle to the other. This lets you know the angle of traction you can get.

A bridle is a rope or cable attached to two points under a vehicle in order to attach a tow rope.

Cadence braking.
This is a method of braking used in vehicles without ABS braking to replicate the effects of ABS. A series of repetitive jabs helps stop the vehicle without skidding.

Capstan winch.
A winch normally on the front bumper run by the vehicle's engine.

Centre differential.
A differential gear device situated at the point where the transfer box splits engine power between the front and rear axles. Such a device is essential in a vehicle having full or part time 4x4- for use on-road as well as off-road.

Continuous rolling contact.
The aim at all times on or off-road -where all wheels are in steady rolling contact with the ground without slip, wheel-spin or slide.

Coupled brakes.
When towing a large trailer coupled brakes means that the vehicle and the trailer brake at the same time allowing more control.

Departure angle.
This is the angle from the base of the rear wheel to the underside of the rear bumper. This indicates the degree of the slope that can be approached.

The diff-lock locks the centre differential and enhances traction. Diff-lock is usually engaged for difficult off-road conditions but should never remain engaged on roads.

EAS - electronic air suspension.
Introduced from 1993 on certain Range Rover models further to enhance standards of road noise insulation, ride and handling. Other competitors now also use this system

Electronic traction control - ETC.
ETC inhibits wheel-spin by applying brakes to a spinning rear wheel and thus enhances traction on ice, snow or in severe off-road conditions, thus maintaining control.

Engine braking.
A method of slowing the vehicle by engaging a low gear and taking your foot off the accelerator

Four-wheel drive (4x4).
A vehicle transmission system wheree engine power is applied to all four wheels. The term 4x4 (four by four) has the specific connotation that it is a four (wheeled vehicle driven) by four (wheels).

Full-time 4x4.
A transmission system on a four-wheeled vehicle in which all four wheels are driven by the engine all the time.

Ground clearance.
This is the space between the ground and the bottom part of a vehicle -usually the differential casing.

Kerb weight.
Is the unladen weight, ie empty vehicle plus full fuel plus 75 kg driver.

Gross vehicle weight - the maximum permitted laden weight of a vehicle including payload, fuel and driver.

Low ratio.
Term to describe the transmission when transfer gearbox lever is in the low position for maximum traction..

Selectable four-wheel drive.
A four-wheeled vehicle which is usually in two-wheel drive but can be changed four-wheel drive

Traction. The amount of grip attained on a given terrain.

Traction Control.
See 'Electronic Traction Control, ETC'.

Vehicle carrying fuel, driver but no payload or other load - see 'Kerb' above.

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